B1 (thiamin) contributes to normal functioning of the heart
B2 (riboflavin) and vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid/nicotinamide) contribute to normal functioning of the nervous system
B6 (pyridoxin), B9 (folic acid) and B12 (cobalamin) contribute to normal functioning of the immune system
B5 (pantothenic acid) and Biotin (formerly called B7/B8) contribute to normal energy-yielding metabolism
Vitamin B6 is required by enzymes called transaminases in the first step of the breakdown of most amino acids for energy production. Sometimes consuming a meat-focused diet can require more B6.
Vitamin B12 and folic acid are responsible for utilization of glycine and serine as methyl donors and for the conversion of the by-product homocysteine to either methionine or to cysteine.
Functions of B Vitamins
Each of the B vitamins has a unique metabolic role, thus one B vitamin cannot be substituted for another, and an excess of one will not make up for a deficiency of another. Because B vitamins are required for fundamental functions of organs and tissues, B vitamin deficiencies profoundly affect health. As examples, deficiencies of thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, folate and vitamin B12 impair humoral and cell mediated immunity, as a result of their impact on the function of B cells and T cells.
Such deficiencies may also depress delayed skin hypersensitivity and promote thymic atrophy. Additionally, liver detoxification is impaired by deficiencies of riboflavin, vitamin B6, niacin, folate and thiamine.
Niacinamide (Nicotinic acid, a form of vitamin B3). Niacinamide, in the form of the coenzyme NAD is a required component of oxidation-reduction reactions, which are required for the release of energy from fats, proteins and carbohydrates. As such, the primary function of niacinamide is as part of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+. As an example, glycolysis involves the partial anaerobic oxidation of glucose by means of NAD. NAD also functions to funnel electrons into the mitochondrial electron transport chain, to drive ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation.
In the pentose phosphate pathway, which converts glucose to ribose for nucleic acid synthesis, the cofactor pair NADP+/NADPH functions in a reductive manner, while the NAD+/NADH cofactor pair functions in an oxidative manner. Consequently NAD+ and NADP are both required by cells. Niacinamide, rather than niacin, is commonly utilized in nutritional supplements due to the absence of its vasodilating properties, common of niacin.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1). Thiamine supports the oxidation of fuels in the citric acid cycle (Kreb’s cycle). Metabolically, thiamine is converted to cocarboxylase by mucosal cells then is subsequently transferred to the liver. Both increases in energy production and a high caloric intake correlate with a higher daily requirement for B complex vitamins, such as thiamine. Thiamine is also a required component in the decarboxylation of keto acids, and in the pentose phosphate pathway, an alternate pathway for glucose breakdown. Thiamin has also been implicated as an important component in myocardial energy production, calcium homeostasis and the reduction of oxidative stress.
Additionally, thiamine participates in carbohydrate degradation, and is particularly important for the efficient degradation of carbohydrates. The decarboxylation of pyruvate, a key step in carbohydrate metabolism, is thiamine dependent. Consequently, carbohydrate metabolism is first to suffer from thiamine deficiency. Thiamine absorption may potentially be blocked due to folate deficiency, or due to the excess consumption of alcohol.
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5). Pantothenic acid forms acetyl coenzyme A, the universal carrier of fatty acids employed in fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid and lipid synthesis, and in the oxidation of carbon atoms from fat and glucose, via the citric acid cycle. In addition to functioning in the citric acid cycle, acetyl coenzyme A accepts acetate units from the degradation of certain amino acids. Functionally, Acetyl coenzyme A serves as a building block for cholesterol, steroid hormones, phospholipids, choline and porphyrin hemoglobin. Cell culture studies have associated pantothenic acid with an increased concentration of intra-cellular glutathione.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2). This bright yellow vitamin forms two coenzymes, FMN and FAD, which assist oxidations associated with the breakdown of pyruvate and acetate in the citric acid cycle. FAD is also required to transfer electrons in the respiratory chain to generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. FAD is a key electron carrier for cytochrome P450, hence riboflavin is an essential component in detoxification reactions. FMN and FAD are also coenzymes for dehydrogenases, which are needed as cofactors for several steps of both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Complex I and Complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are the sites of flavoprotein action, requiring riboflavin-derived coenzymes. Optimal performance of NADH-CoQ reductase and Complex I may potentially require extra riboflavin. Prophylaxis for migraine suffers has implicated beneficial results with riboflavin supplementation.
Pyrodoxine (Vitamin B6). In most cases the first metabolic step for amino acid degradation requires the removal of nitrogen using a set of enzymes called amino transferases (transaminases). These enzymes utilize the coenzyme form of B6, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, to transfer amino groups. Following the removal of the amino group, the resulting keto acids are degraded by the citric acid cycle. Alternately, pyridoxal 5-phosphate and transaminases transfer amino acid groups to other keto acids to generate nonessential amino acids, such as alanine, aspartate and glutamate. Vitamin B6 is also needed for glycogen synthesis, heme synthesis, and the formation of niacin from tryptophan.
Biotin. Biotin is essential for normal glucose metabolism, and in the synthesis of glucose from non-sugar compounds (gluconeogenesis). It is also a functional component of both amino acid and purine metabolism, and is required as a coenzyme in the addition of carbonate to metabolites. Biotin dependent carboxylation reactions are also involved in the synthesis of fatty acids. Additionally, biotin is necessary liver component in the maintenance of fasting blood sugar levels.
Folate and Vitamin B12. Unlike the B vitamins described above, folic acid and vitamin B12 possess specialized functions related to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.
Folate. Folate is essential for the formation of red and white blood cells in the bone marrow. This vitamin forms tetrahydrofolate, a coenzyme used to transfer single carbons. Single carbon transfers occur during the synthesis of glycine and serine, and in the formation of guanine, adenine and thymine, which is required for RNA and DNA formation, and is essential to cell division. Additionally, methylation reactions, which occur during the formation of epinephrine, choline, carnitine, histones, and certain amino acids, including N-methylhistidine, rely on folate. Certain bases of RNA and DNA also require methylation, and thus are folate dependent.
Methylcobalamin (Vitamin B12). Vitamin B12 is the largest and most complex of the B vitamins, of which the activated intermediate is methylcobalamin. It contains cobalt, and represents the only form of this trace mineral essential in the human diet. Vitamin B12 is required in fatty acid metabolism and in the transfer of methyl groups for methylation reactions as described above. Vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic folate together to prevent the accumulation of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. In methylation reactions homocysteine is released from the sulfur amino acid methionine following the release of methyl groups. Folate and vitamin B12 can assist in the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. Alternatively, vitamin B6 is required to convert homocysteine to cysteine.
One (1) tablet each day as a dietary supplement or as otherwise directed by a healthcare professional.
Thiamin (B1) (as thiamin mononitrate), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (as niacinamide), Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride), Folate (as calcium folinate), Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin), Biotin, Pantothenic Acid (as calcium pantothenate), Superoxide dismutase (from vegetable culture), Catalase (from vegetable culture).
Specially grown, biologically active vegetable culture containing naturally associated phytochemicals including polyphenolic compounds with SOD and catalase, dehydrated at low temperature to preserve associated enzyme factors.
Stearic acid (vegetable source), cellulose, modified cellulose gum, magnesium stearate (vegetable source) and food glaze. This product is gluten and dairy free.
Quality made in the USA
Biotics produces tablets, capsules, powders and liquids in our Rosenberg, Texas, FDA-Registered, Texas Department of Health licensed, GMP-certified production and laboratory facility. Biotics products are tested in their state-of-the-art laboratory to ensure their safety, efficacy, and purity, and all Biotics Research products are gluten free.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease.